Acronyms used in the document

2D, 3D Two dimension(al), three dimension (al)
5G Fifth-generation communication network
6G Sixth-generation communication network
A&P Assembly and packaging
AAL Ambient Assisted Living
ACA Anisotropic conductive adhesive
ACES Autonomous, connected, electric and shared
ACK Alexa Communication Kit
ADAS Advanced driver-assistance system
AF-EAF Air Force Enterprise Architecture Framework
AFIoT Architecture Framework for the Internet of Things
AFM Atomic force microscopy
AI Artificial Intelligence
AIOTI Alliance for the Internet of Things Innovation
AIoT Artificial Intelligence of things
AlN Aluminum nitride
ALU Arithmetic logic unit
ANN Artificial Neural Network
AMD Age-related macular degeneration
AMS Analogue/mixed signal
API Application programming interface
AR Augmented reality
AS Autonomous system
ASIC Application-specific integrated circuit
AUTOSAR AUTomotive Open System Architecture
B2B Business-to-business
B2C Business-to-consumer
BATX Baidu, Alibaba, Tencent and Xiaomi
BCI Brain–computer interface
BDVA Big Data Value Association
BEOL Back end of line
BEV Battery electric vehicle
BGA Ball grid array
BiCMOS Bipolar CMOS
BIST Built-in self-test
BOM Bill of materials
BOX Buried oxide
C&K Competence and knowledge
CAD Computer-aided design
CAFCR Customer Objectives, Application, Functional, Conceptual and Realisation Model
CAGR Compound annual growth rate
Cath lab Catheterisation laboratory
CAV Connected autonomous vehicle
CB Conductive-bridge
CBRAM Conductive-bridging RAM
CCAM Connected, Cooperative and Automated Mobility
CDR Carbon dioxide removal
CEAP Circular Economy Action Plan
CFD Computational fluid dynamics
CMOS Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor
cMUT Capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer
CNN Convolutional neural network
CNT Carbon nanotube
CPS Cyber-physical system
CPU Central processing unit
CrMMC Carbon-reinforced metal matrix composites
CRM Critical Raw Material
CT Computed tomography
CVD Chemical vapour deposition
D2D Device-to-device
DCS Distributed control systems
DfA Design for assembly
DfM Design for manufacturing
DfR Design for reliability
DfX Design for excellence
DL Deep learning
DMA Direct Memory Access
DNN Deep neural network
DPP Digital Product Password
DPU Data Processing Unit
DRAM Dynamic random access memory
DSA Directed self-assembly
DSL Domain-specific language
DSS Decision-support system
DT Drug-targeted
DUV Deep ultraviolet
E/E Electrical/electronic
EC-RAM Error correction RAM
ECPS Embedded and cyber-physical system
ECS Electronic components and systems
ECSO European Cyber Security Organisation
ECU Electronic control unit
EDA Electronic design automation
EFFRA European Factories of the Future Research Association
eHPC Embedded high-performance computing
EHR Electronic health record
EIP-AGRI European Innovation Partnership “Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability”
EMC Electromagnetic compatibility
EMI Electromagnetic interference
EMR Electronic medical record
EMS Energy management systems
eNVM Embedded non-volatile memory
EOL End-of-life
EP Engineering process
EPI European Processor Initiative
ERP Enterprise resource planning
ERTRAC European Road Transport Research Advisory Council
ESAAF European Space Agency Architecture Framework
ESS Electronic smart system
ETP European Technology Platform
ETP4HPC European Technology Platform for High Performance Computing
EU European Union
EUV Extreme ultraviolet
EV Electric vehicle
FAIR Facebook AI Research
FAIRness Findability, accessibility, interoperability and reuse
FCC Federal Communications Commission
FDSOI Fully depleted SOI
Fe Ferroelectric
FEM Finite element method
FEOL Front end of line
FET Future and emerging technologies
FFT Fast Fourier transform
FinFet Fin field-effect transistor
FLOPS (flops or flop/s) Floating point operations per second
FMEA Failure mode and effect analysis
FMI Functional mock-up interface
FMIS Farm management information system
fMRI Functional magnetic resonance imaging
FMU Functional mock-up unit
FPGA Field-programmable gate array
GAA Gate All Around
GAFAM Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon and Microsoft
GAMAM like GAFAM but with the new name of Facebook (Meta)
GaN Gallium nitride
GDPR General data protection regulation
GHG Greenhouse gas
GPS Global Positioning System
GPU Graphics processing unit
HAD Highly automated driving
HCI Human–computer interaction
HEMT High-electron-mobility transistor
HEV Hybrid electric vehicle
HF High-frequency
HIL Hardware-in-the-loop
HIR Heterogeneous Integration Roadmap
HMI Human–machine interface
HMLV High mix low volume
HPC High-performance computing
HTA Hexagon Tensor Accelerator
HVAC Heating, ventilation and air conditioning
HVDC High-voltage direct current
HW Hardware
I/O Input/output
IC Integrated chip
IC Integrated circuit
ICT Information and communications technology
IDM Integrated device manufacturer
IEA International Energy Agency
IGBT Insulated-gate bipolar transistor
IIA Industrial Internet Architecture
IIoT Industrial IoT
IIRA Industrial Internet Reference Architecture
IMC In Memory Computing
INCOSE International Council on Systems Engineering
iNEMI International Electronics Manufacturing Initiative
IoMT Internet of Medical Things
IoT Internet of Things
IP Intellectual property
IP Internet protocol
IPCEI Important project of common European interest
IPM Integrated pest management
IPSR Integrated Photonic Systems Roadmap
IR Infrared
IRDS International Roadmap for Devices and Systems
ISOC Internet Society
IT information technology
IVD in vitro diagnostic
IXP Internet exchange point
JU Joint undertaking
KDT Key Digital Technologies
KFI Key failure indicator
KPI Key performance indicator
LAE Large-area electronics
LCA Lifecycle assessment
LCP Liquid crystal polymers
LCOE Levelised cost of electricity
LED Light Emitting Diode
LLM Large Language Model
LoC Lab-on-a-chip
LV Low voltage
M2M Machine-to-machine
MaaS Manufacturing as a service
MaaS Mobility-as-a-service
MCM Multi-chip module
MCU Microcontroller unit
MDM Multi-dimensional metrology
MEC Multi-access edge computing
MEC Mobile edge computing
Medtech Medical technology
MEMS Micro-electromechanical systems
MES Manufacturing execution system
MES Multi-energy system
MIL Model-in-the-loop
ML Machine learning
MM-ENS Multimodal energy system
MNBS Micro-nano-bio system
MNS Micro-nanosystems
MODAF Ministry of Defence Architecture Framework (UK)
MOEMS Micro-opto-electro-mechanical system
MOF Metal–organic framework
MOOC Massive open online course
MOSFET Metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor
MPU Microprocessing unit
MRAM Magnetic RAM
MUT Micromachined ultrasonic transducer
MV Medium voltage
NB Narrowband
NEMS Nano-electromechanical systems
NFV Network functions virtualisation
NFVI Network functions virtualisation infrastructure
NLU Natural language understanding
NMC Near Memory Computing
NoC Network on Chip
NPU Neuromorphic processing unit
NVM Non-volatile memory
OCT Optical coherence tomography
ODD Operational design domain
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OEF Organisation Environmental Footprint
OEM Original equipment manufacturer
OLED Organic LED
OOC Organ-on-a-chip
OPV Organic Photovoltaics
OSI open systems interconnection
OSS Operations support system
OT Operational technology
OTA Over-the-air
OXRAM Oxide-based RAM
P2P Peer-to-peer
P4 Predictive, preventive, personalised, participatory
PAD Productivity-aware design
PCB Printed circuit board
PCM Phase-change memory
PCRAM Phase-change RAM
PDMS Polydimethylsiloxane
PEALD Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition
PEF Product Environmental Footprint
PFAS Per- and Polyfluorinated Substances
PFI Physical and functional integration
PGHD Patient-generated health data
PHM Prognostic health management
Pl Polyimide
PIII Plasma-immersion ion implantation
PIC Photonic Integrated Circuit
PLC Programmable logic controllers
PLM Product lifestyle management
PMIC Power management integrated circuit
PMUT Piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducer
PoC Point-of-care
PoCT Point-of-care testing
PoF Physics of failure
PPAC Power, performance, area and cost
PPE Personal protective equipment
ppm Parts per million
PPP Public/private partnership
PSiP Power source in a package
PTEMM Process technologies, equipment, materials and manufacturing
PV Photovoltaics
PVD Physical vapour deposition
PwrSiP Power system in a package
PwrSoC Power source on a chip
PZT Lead zirconate titanate
QIP Quantum information processing
QoS Quality of service
QRSC Quality, reliability, safety and cybersecurity
Qubit Quantum bit
qZSI Quasi-impedence source inverter
R&D Research and development
R&D&I Research and development and innovation
RAM Random-access memory
RAMI 4.0 Reference Architecture Model for Industry 4.0
ReRAM Resistive RAM
RES Renewable energy system
RF Radio frequency
RFID Radio-frequency identification
RL Reinforcement learning
RNN Recursive neural network
ROHS Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive
ROI Return on investment
RPA Robotic process automation
RRAM Resistive RAM
RT-PCR Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
RTE Run-time environment
RTO Research and technology organisation
RUL Remaining useful life
SaaS Software as a service
SAC Conventional SnAgCu
SAC Tin-silver-copper alloy (SnAgCu)
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
SCADA Supervisory control and data acquisition
ScAIN Scandium aluminium nitride
SCM Storage class memory
SCM Supply chain management
SDDS Smart drug delivery system
SDG Sustainable Development Goal
SDK Software development kit
SDN Software-defined networking
SDR Software-defined radio
SEAP Strategic Environmental Assessment Plan
SECAP Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan
SEES Self-powered electrochemical energy storage system
SGD Speech-generating device
SiC Silicon carbide
SIL Software-in-the-loop
SiP System in a package
SKC Skills, knowledge and competence
SME Small and medium-sized enterprise
SNN Spiking Neural Network
SoA Service-oriented architecture
SoC System on a chip
SoCPS System of cyber-physical systems
SOI Silicon-on-insulator
SoS System of Systems
SOT Spin-orbit torque
SOTIF Safety of Intended Functionality
SPIRE Sustainable Process Industry through Resource and Energy Efficiency
SRAM Static RAM
SRGM Software reliability growth models
SRIA Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda
SSI Smart systems integration
STDP Spike-timing-dependent plasticity
STEM Science, technology, engineering and mathematics
STS Socio-technical system
STT Spin-transfer torque
SUMP Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan
SUT System-under-test
SW Software
SWM Smart Water Management
TCP Transmission control protocol
TEV Through-encapsulant via
TOPS Tera operations per second
TOU Time of use
TPU Tensor processing unit
TPU Thermoplastic Polyurethane
TRL Technology readiness level
TSMC Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company
TSN Time-sensitive network
TSO Transmission system operator
TSV Through-silicon via
TV&V Testing validation and verification
UAV Unmanned aerial vehicle
UAV Unmanned autonomous vessel
ULP Ultra-low power
UN United Nations
UPS Uninterruptible power supply
UXV Unmanned vehicle
V&V Verification & validation
V2G Vehicle to grid
V2X Vehicle-to-everything
VCMA Voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy
VIL Vehicle-in-the-loop
VLSI Very large-scale integration
VOC Volatile organic compound
VR Virtual reality
WBG Wide bandgap
WHO World Health Organization
WLP Wafer-level packaging
WLTP Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure
XR Extended reality